Исходный падеж (шығыс септік)

The original case (shyǵys septik)  Kazakh language corresponds to the Subjective Case in English with the preposition from, of, with, out, since.

QazaqEnglish
qoryqqan-nanwith fright
ash-tanfrom hunger
qulyn-nanfrom a foal
taý-danfrom the mountain

The original case (shyǵys septik) answers questions kimnen? (from whom?), neden? (from what?), qaıdan? (where from?), qashannan? (since when?) and is used to indicate the starting point of the action of the subject or what the object is made of.

QazaqEnglishQuestion
Men ylǵı dosym-nan aqyl suraımynI always ask advice from my friendkimnen?
Ol qyzy-nan kele jatyrHe goes from his girlfriendkimnen?
Olar aq un-nan nan jasaıdyThey made bread from white flourneden?
Ol jibek-ten kóılegin tigip otyrShe is sewing a dress made of silkneden?
Men dúken-nen kele jatyrmynI’m back from the storeqaıdan?
Ol jınalys-tan kele jatyrHe returns from the meetingqaıdan?
Keshe-den osyndaBeen here since yesterdayqashanan?
Toǵyz-dan júrip jatyrStarting with nineqashanan?

Nouns in the original case (shyǵys septik) take endings -dan (-dan), -tan (-ten), -nan (-nen):

  1. If the base of the word ends in vowels -a, -á, -e, -ı, -ý, -y, -i, (except -y and  in the cases of the 3rd person form), voiced consonants -j, -z or sonorants -l, -r, -ý, then the endings -dan/-den are added to it.
    QazaqEnglish
    Serik kala-dan keldiSerik came from the city
    Teńgeni qaǵaz-dan jasaıdyTenge made from paper
    Biz stýdentter-den emtıhan alamyzWe take exams from students
    Men dáriger-den kele jatyrmynI’m coming from a doctor
  2. If the final sound of word voiceless consonant -k, -q, -p, -s, -t, -sh or ends with a voiced consonant -b, -v, -g, -ǵ, -d, then the endings -tan/-ten are added to it.
    QazaqEnglish
    Marıam zavod-tan keldiMariyam came from the factory
    Almas ınstıtýty-tan keldiAlmas returned from the Institute
    Men Peterbýrg-ten kele jatyrmynI’m coming from Petersburg
    Qaımaqty sút-ten jasaıdySour cream is made from milk
  3. If the base word ends in conomie consonants -m,-n,-ń and in cases of the third person possessive form with affixes -y/-i, -sy/-si after the root of the word, then the endings -nan/-nen are added to it.
    QazaqEnglish
    Brıgada aýdan-nan keldiThe team returned from the area
    Ol meıram-nan kele jatyrHe is coming from a holiday
    Ákem-nen hat aldymI received a letter from my father
    Ájeń-nen habar bar ma?Have you heard from your grandmother?

In the Kazakh language, the original case (shyǵys septik) has the following meanings:

    1. The starting point of action and movement:
      QazaqEnglish
      Sársen demalys-tan keldiSarsen came back from vacation
      Stýdentter praktıkasy-dan keldiThe students are back from practice
      Omar mektep-ten molla shyqtyOmar got out of school
      Men qazy-dan kele jatyrmynI’m coming from the judge
    2. Compare items:
      QazaqEnglish
      Muhıt teńiz-den úlkenThe ocean is bigger than the sea
      Asqar-dan Bolat kishiBolat is younger than Askar
      Altaı-dan Sáken úlkenSaken is smaller than Altai
      Balhıa-dan Ámına jasyAmina is younger than Belgii
    3. The material that the item is made of:
      QazaqEnglish
      Qaǵaz-dy* shyrsha aǵashy-nan jasaıdyPaper is made from spruce wood
      Balshyq-tan kirpish jasaıdyBricks are made from clay
      Nan-dy* un-nan pisirediBread is baked from flour
      Úıler-di* tas-tan saladyHouses are built of stone

      * The accusative ending is attached here.

    4. Onset of action in time:
      QazaqEnglish
      Instıtýtta birinshi qazan-nan dáris bastaladyLectures at the Institute begin on the first of October
      Jumys zaýytta saǵat segiz-den bastaladyWork at the factory starts at eight o’clock
      Erteń-nen bastap leksıaǵa baramynI’ll start going to lectures tomorrow
      Keshe-den bastap qar jaýadyIt’s been snowing since yesterday

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