The original case (shyǵys septik) of nouns in the Kazakh language, the description and examples

Исходный падеж (шығыс септік)

The original case (shyǵys septik)  Kazakh language corresponds to the Subjective Case in English with the preposition from, of, with, out, since.

Qazaq English
qoryqqan-nan with fright
ash-tan from hunger
qulyn-nan from a foal
taý-dan from the mountain

The original case (shyǵys septik) answers questions kimnen? (from whom?), neden? (from what?), qaıdan? (where from?), qashannan? (since when?) and is used to indicate the starting point of the action of the subject or what the object is made of.

Qazaq English Question
Men ylǵı dosym-nan aqyl suraımyn I always ask advice from my friend kimnen?
Ol qyzy-nan kele jatyr He goes from his girlfriend kimnen?
Olar aq un-nan nan jasaıdy They made bread from white flour neden?
Ol jibek-ten kóılegin tigip otyr She is sewing a dress made of silk neden?
Men dúken-nen kele jatyrmyn I’m back from the store qaıdan?
Ol jınalys-tan kele jatyr He returns from the meeting qaıdan?
Keshe-den osynda Been here since yesterday qashanan?
Toǵyz-dan júrip jatyr Starting with nine qashanan?

Nouns in the original case (shyǵys septik) take endings -dan (-dan), -tan (-ten), -nan (-nen):

  1. If the base of the word ends in vowels -a, -á, -e, -ı, -ý, -y, -i, (except -y and  in the cases of the 3rd person form), voiced consonants -j, -z or sonorants -l, -r, -ý, then the endings -dan/-den are added to it.
    Qazaq English
    Serik kala-dan keldi Serik came from the city
    Teńgeni qaǵaz-dan jasaıdy Tenge made from paper
    Biz stýdentter-den emtıhan alamyz We take exams from students
    Men dáriger-den kele jatyrmyn I’m coming from a doctor
  2. If the final sound of word voiceless consonant -k, -q, -p, -s, -t, -sh or ends with a voiced consonant -b, -v, -g, -ǵ, -d, then the endings -tan/-ten are added to it.
    Qazaq English
    Marıam zavod-tan keldi Mariyam came from the factory
    Almas ınstıtýty-tan keldi Almas returned from the Institute
    Men Peterbýrg-ten kele jatyrmyn I’m coming from Petersburg
    Qaımaqty sút-ten jasaıdy Sour cream is made from milk
  3. If the base word ends in conomie consonants -m,-n,-ń and in cases of the third person possessive form with affixes -y/-i, -sy/-si after the root of the word, then the endings -nan/-nen are added to it.
    Qazaq English
    Brıgada aýdan-nan keldi The team returned from the area
    Ol meıram-nan kele jatyr He is coming from a holiday
    Ákem-nen hat aldym I received a letter from my father
    Ájeń-nen habar bar ma? Have you heard from your grandmother?

In the Kazakh language, the original case (shyǵys septik) has the following meanings:

    1. The starting point of action and movement:
      Qazaq English
      Sársen demalys-tan keldi Sarsen came back from vacation
      Stýdentter praktıkasy-dan keldi The students are back from practice
      Omar mektep-ten molla shyqty Omar got out of school
      Men qazy-dan kele jatyrmyn I’m coming from the judge
    2. Compare items:
      Qazaq English
      Muhıt teńiz-den úlken The ocean is bigger than the sea
      Asqar-dan Bolat kishi Bolat is younger than Askar
      Altaı-dan Sáken úlken Saken is smaller than Altai
      Balhıa-dan Ámına jasy Amina is younger than Belgii
    3. The material that the item is made of:
      Qazaq English
      Qaǵaz-dy* shyrsha aǵashy-nan jasaıdy Paper is made from spruce wood
      Balshyq-tan kirpish jasaıdy Bricks are made from clay
      Nan-dy* un-nan pisiredi Bread is baked from flour
      Úıler-di* tas-tan salady Houses are built of stone

      * The accusative ending is attached here.

    4. Onset of action in time:
      Qazaq English
      Instıtýtta birinshi qazan-nan dáris bastalady Lectures at the Institute begin on the first of October
      Jumys zaýytta saǵat segiz-den bastalady Work at the factory starts at eight o’clock
      Erteń-nen bastap leksıaǵa baramyn I’ll start going to lectures tomorrow
      Keshe-den bastap qar jaýady It’s been snowing since yesterday