Directional-dative (barys septik) of nouns in the Kazakh language, the description and examples

Направительно-дательный падеж

Directional-dative (barys septik) corresponds to the English dative case with the preposition to.

Qazaq English Question
Ásıa-ǵa to Asia kimge?
múǵalim-ge to the teacher kimge?
Almaty-ǵa to Almaty qaıda?

Answers questions kimge? ((to) whom?, for whom?), nege? ((to) what?, for what?), qaıda? (where?) and describes the direction or target of the action. Directional-dative (barys septik) has the following endings: -ǵa (-ge), -qa (-ke), -na (-ne), -a (-e).

Qazaq English the Ending
Máskeý-ǵa (qaıda?) to Moscow (where?) -ǵa
Marat-qa (kimge?) to Marat (whom?) -qa
Eset-ke (kimge?) to Eset (to whom?) -ke
qyz-i-na (kimge?) to his girlfriend (to whom?) -na
at-yń-a (nege?) to your name (to what?) -a
úı-iń-e (qaıda?) to your house (where?) -e

In the Kazakh language directional-dative (barys septik) means:

  1. Direction: aýyl-ǵa (to a village), mektep-ke (to the school), úı-i-ńe (to the home).
  2. Goal: Sútke bar. (Go for the milk). Dúkenge nan-ǵa bar (Go for the bread). Issapar-ǵa ketti. (Went on a business trip)
  3. The price of the subject: Qantty, bir som-ǵa aldym. (I bought sugar for the ruble). Paltony júz som-ǵa aldym (I bought a coat for a hundred rubles).
The word ends with Example Affix
  • vowel -a, -á, -e, -ı, -ý, -y, -i
    (except -y и -і in cases of possessive forms 3d person)
  • sonorous consonant -й, -л, -м, -н -ң, -р, -у (except-m and -I in the cases of possessive forms of the 1st and 2nd person of the singular number)
  • voiced consonant -z
alý-ǵa (nege?) to take (why?)
sóıleý-ge (nege?) to talk (why?)
  • voiceless consonant -k, -q, -p, -s, -t, -sh
  • voiced consonants -b, -v, -g, -ǵ, -d
qonaq-qa (kimge?) to the guest (to whom?) (кому?)
jigit-ke (kimge?) to the guy (to whom?)
hat-lar-ǵa (qaıda?) in her letter (where?)
sheleg-i-ne (qaıda?) in her bucket (where?)
ata-m-a (kimge?) to my grandfather (to whom?)
sheshe-ń-e (kimge?) to your mother (to whom?)

The end of the directional-dative (barys septik) can join to a verb (the fourth form). This grammatical structure also indicates the target of the action and is translated by the word “to”:

Question Answer
Ol nege keldi? (Why is he here?) Sý ishý-ge. (To get a drink of water.)
Sen nege kettiń? (Why did you leave?) Hat jazý-ǵa. (To write a letter.)
Olar nege gúlder satyp aldy? (Why they bought flowers?) Syılaý-ǵa. (To give.)