Directional-dative (barys septik) of nouns in the Kazakh language, the description and examples
Directional-dative (barys septik) corresponds to the English dative case with the preposition to.
|múǵalim-ge||to the teacher||kimge?|
Answers questions kimge? ((to) whom?, for whom?), nege? ((to) what?, for what?), qaıda? (where?) and describes the direction or target of the action. Directional-dative (barys septik) has the following endings: -ǵa (-ge), -qa (-ke), -na (-ne), -a (-e).
|Máskeý-ǵa (qaıda?)||to Moscow (where?)||-ǵa|
|Marat-qa (kimge?)||to Marat (whom?)||-qa|
|Eset-ke (kimge?)||to Eset (to whom?)||-ke|
|qyz-i-na (kimge?)||to his girlfriend (to whom?)||-na|
|at-yń-a (nege?)||to your name (to what?)||-a|
|úı-iń-e (qaıda?)||to your house (where?)||-e|
In the Kazakh language directional-dative (barys septik) means:
- Direction: aýyl-ǵa (to a village), mektep-ke (to the school), úı-i-ńe (to the home).
- Goal: Sútke bar. (Go for the milk). Dúkenge nan-ǵa bar (Go for the bread). Issapar-ǵa ketti. (Went on a business trip)
- The price of the subject: Qantty, bir som-ǵa aldym. (I bought sugar for the ruble). Paltony júz som-ǵa aldym (I bought a coat for a hundred rubles).
|The word ends with||Example||Affix|
||alý-ǵa (nege?) to take (why?)
sóıleý-ge (nege?) to talk (why?)
||qonaq-qa (kimge?) to the guest (to whom?) (кому?)
jigit-ke (kimge?) to the guy (to whom?)
||hat-lar-ǵa (qaıda?) in her letter (where?)
sheleg-i-ne (qaıda?) in her bucket (where?)
||ata-m-a (kimge?) to my grandfather (to whom?)
sheshe-ń-e (kimge?) to your mother (to whom?)
The end of the directional-dative (barys septik) can join to a verb (the fourth form). This grammatical structure also indicates the target of the action and is translated by the word “to”:
|Ol nege keldi? (Why is he here?)||Sý ishý-ge. (To get a drink of water.)|
|Sen nege kettiń? (Why did you leave?)||Hat jazý-ǵa. (To write a letter.)|
|Olar nege gúlder satyp aldy? (Why they bought flowers?)||Syılaý-ǵa. (To give.)|