The pluperfect tense (burynǵy ótken shaq) of the Kazakh language

Девочка с листьями в руке


The pluperfect reliable tense (burynǵy ótken shaq), in contrast to the simple past tense of the verb (ótken shaq), is used when it is necessary to emphasize the past of the event and the confidence in the information provided. The long-past reliable tense is formed by adding the endings –gan/-gen, –qan/-ken to the verb root, then adding the personal endings –myn/-min, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -myz/-miz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder.

  1. Examples in the pluperfect reliable tense
  2. Negative form of pluperfect tense
  3. Interrogative form of pluperfect tense
  4. Examples of changing the “edi” depending on the person
  5. Examples of using the “edi” in sentences

Examples of the pluperfect reliable tense

Please note that here the affixes -myn/-min, -byz/-biz are used in the first person singular and plural.

1stThe singular number
Men bar-ǵan-myn.
Men kór-gen-min.
Men ash-qan-myn.
Men ket-ken-min.
I went.
I saw.
I opened.
I left.
The plural number
Biz bar-ǵan-byz.
Biz kór-gen-biz.
Biz ash-qan-byz.
Biz ket-ken-biz.
We went.
We saw.
We opened.
We left.
2ndThe singular number
Sen bar-ǵan-syń.
Sen kór-gen-siń.
Siz ash-qan-syz.
Siz ket-ken-siz.
You went.
You saw.
You opened.
You left.
The plural number
Sender bar-ǵan-syndar.
Sender kór-gen-sinder.
Sizder ash-qan-syzdar.
Sizder ket-ken-sizder.
You went.
You saw.
You opened.
You left.
3dThe singular number
Ol bar-ǵan.
Ol kór-gen.
Ol ash-qan.
Ol ket-ken.
She/He went.
She/He saw.
She/He opened.
She/He left.
The plural number
Olar bar-ǵan.
Olar kór-gen.
Olar ash-qan.
Olar ket-ken.
They went.
They saw.
They opened.
They left.

Negative form of pluperfect tense

For the formation of negative form of the pluperfect tense you need to use the word joq, emes, to which the personal endings -pyn/-pin, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -pyz/-piz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder are added to them. Here, in the first person singular and plural, the affixes -pyn/-pin-pyz/-piz are used.

1-еЕдинственное число
Men bar-ǵan joq-pyn.
Men kór-gen emes-pin.
Men ash-qan joq-pyn.
Men ket-ken emes-pin.
I didn’t go there.
I didn’t see it.
I didn’t open it.
I didn’t leave.
Множественное число
Biz bar-ǵan joq-pyz.
Biz kór-gen emes-piz.
Biz ash-qan joq-pyz.
Biz ket-ken emes-piz.
We didn’t go.
We didn’t see it.
We didn’t open it.
We didn’t leave.
2-еЕдинственное число
Sen bar-ǵan joq-syń.
Sen kór-gen emes-sin.
Siz ash-qan joq-siz.
Siz ket-ken emes-siz.
You didn’t go.
You didn’t see it.
You didn’t open it.
You didn’t leave.
Множественное число
Sender bar-ǵan joq-syndar.
Sender kór-gen emes-sinder.
Sizder ash-qan joq-syzdar.
Siz ket-ken emes-sizder.
You didn’t go.
You didn’t see it.
You didn’t open it.
You didn’t leave.
3-еЕдинственное число
Ol bar-ǵan joq.
Ol kór-gen.
Ol ash-qan joq.
Ol ket-ken.
He didn’t go.
He didn’t see it.
He didn’t open it.
He did not leave.
Множественное число
Olar bar-ǵan.
Olar kór-gen.
Olar ash-qan.
Olar ket-ken.
They didn’t go.
They didn’t see it.
They didn’t open it.
They didn’t leave.

Interrogative form of pluperfect tense

The interrogative form is formed using the interrogative words emes, qashan, kaıda, etc.

Olar qashan úıdi salǵan?When did they build the house?
Sen qaıda týǵansyń?Where were you born?
Sen qashan bul shuńqyrdy qazǵansyń?When did you dig this hole?
Saǵan ne bolǵan ?What happened to you?
Sen qashan tamaq ishkensiń?When did you eat?
Sen ony qashan kórgensiń?When did you see him?
Siz qashan ınstıtýtyn bitirgensiz?When did you graduate from the Institute?

Examples of changing edi depending on the person

If you want to indicate that the event took place at that time, then you need to add an additional word edi to the verb in the long-past tense, to which are added the personal endings –myn/-min, -syn/-sin, -syz/-siz, -myz/-miz, -syndar/-sinder, -syzdar/-sizder.

The personThe singular numberThe plural number

Examples of usage edi in sentences

  1. Men ol kezde ınstıtýtta oqyp júrgen edim. – Then (at that time) I studied at the Institute.
  2. Sen ol kezde bes jasta bolatynsyń (ediń). – You were five years old at the time.
  3. Siz buny ol kezde estemigen edińiz (bolatynsyz). – You didn’t hear about it then (at that time).
  4. Olar alpys tórtinshi jyly Almatyda týrǵan edi (bolatyn). – They lived in Almaty in nineteen sixty-four.

A poem on a given topic:

Baryp edim, joq eken

Aıtyp edim kelemin dedi

Kelgeni ǵoı, kelmegeni

Kelmese eger keler edi