The complex form of the present continuous tense (naq osy shaq) of the Kazakh language

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The complex form of the present continuous tense of the Kazakh language is formed by using auxiliary verbs otyrý — to sit, *jatý — to lie, turý — to stand, júrý — to walk. The roots of these auxiliary verbs join the end of –myn/-min, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -myz/-miz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder. Personal endings –yp/-ip/-p are added to the verb before the auxiliary verb. *When conjugating the verb jatý, the form of the jatyr is taken for its root.

Examples of a complex form of the present continuous tense

oqy-p otyr+ending – to read

Men oqyp otyrmyn – I am readingBiz oqyp otyrmyz – We are reading
Sen oqyp otyrsyń – You are readingSender oqyp otyrsyńdar – They are reading
Siz oqyp otyrsyz – You are readingSizder oqyp otyrsyzdar – You are reading
Ol oqyp otyr – She/He is readingOlar oqyp otyr – They are reading

oqy-p jatyr+ending – to learn

Men oqyp jatyrmyn – I’m learningBiz oqyp jatyrmyz – We are learning
Sen oqyp jatyrsyń – You are learningSender oqyp jatyrsyńdar – You are learning
Siz oqyp jatyrsyz – You are learningSizder oqyp jatyrsyzdar – You are learning
Ol oqyp jatyr – She/He is learningOlar oqyp jatyr – They are learning

kel-ip tur+ending – to come

Men kelip turmyn – I am comingBiz kelip turmyz – We are coming
Sen kelip tursyń – You are comingSender kelip tursyńdar – You are coming
Siz kelip tursyz – You are comingSizder kelip tursyzdar – You are coming
Ol kelip tur – She/He is comingOlar kelip tur – They are coming

oıla-p júr+ending – to think

Men oılap júrmyn – I am thinkingBiz oılap júrmyz – We are thinking
Sen oılap júrsyń – You are thinkingSender oılap júrsyńdar – You are thinking
Siz oılap júrsyz – You are thinkingSizder oılap júrsyzdar – You are thinking
Ol oılap júr – She/He is thinkingOlar oılap júr – They are thinking

If the auxiliary verb is jatyr is used along with the verb barý (to go), kelý (to come, to appear), aparý (to carry), ákelý (to bring), these verbs form the participle with endings -a/-e. Auxiliary verb jatyr is not translated, and indicates that the action is happening at the moment:

Men qala-ǵa bar-a jatyr-myn - I'm going to the city.
Men uı-ge kel-e jatyr-myn - I'm going to home.
Men oǵan kitap-sen* apar-a jatyr-myn - I'm bringing him a book.
Men osynda shaı ákel-e jatyr-myn - I'm bringing tea here.

* kitap-ty = the book is added to the end of the accusative case (tabys septik) of nouns.

The use of auxiliary verbs

To understand which auxiliary verb to use, you need to think in what position a particular action is usually performed. If jazyp jatyr means he writes in the moment, without specifying the condition of the subject, then úıqtap jatyr indicates that the subject is lying is doing, and his condition — he’s sleeping (lying down) at the moment.

If these auxiliary verbs indicate the duration and nature of the action, then the state in which the speaker is located indicates the duration of the action. A person usually stands (turý) for a short time while doing something, so it can be difficult. Moving (júrý), a person can do more. Well, when sitting (otyrý), it can perform much more work. And it is no secret that a person can do something lying down (jatý) for a long time.

Finally, if you do not know exactly which auxiliary verb to use, then jatyr will work very well, since it has completely lost its original lexical meaning, while the verbs otyrtur and júr still have a shade of the original meanings of “sit”, “stand” and “walk”, respectively.

Denying in the complex form of the present continuous tense

The negative form of the complex present continuous tense (naq osy shaq) of the Kazakh language is formed:

  • by using auxiliary verbs with endings –ǵan/-gen, -qan/-ken. Also after the auxiliary verbs added the word “joq”, joined by personal endings: –pyn/-pyz, -syń/-syz, -syńdar/-syzdar or the word emes to which personal endings –pin/-piz, -siń/-siz, -sińder/-sizder are added.

oqy-p otyr+ǵan joq/emes+ending – do not read

Men oqyp otyrǵan joqppyn / emespin – I’m not readingBiz oqyp otyrǵan joqpyz / emespiz – We are not reading
Sen oqyp otyrǵan joqsyń / emessiń – You’re not readingSender oqyp otyrǵan joqsyńdar / emessińder – We are not reading
Siz oqyp otyrǵan joqsyz / emessiz – You are not readingSizder oqyp otyrǵan joqsyzdar / emessizder – We are not reading
Ol oqyp otyrǵan joq  / emes – He/She is not readingOlar oqyp otyrǵan joq  / emes – They are not reading

oqy-p jat+qan joq/emes+ending – do not learn

Men oqyp jatqan joqpyn / emespin – I am not learningBiz oqyp jatqan joqpyz / emespiz – We are not learning
Sen oqyp jatqan joqsyń / emessiń – You are not learningSender oqyp jatqan joqsyńdar / emessizder – You are not learning
Siz oqyp jatqan joqsyz / emessiz – You are not learningSizder oqyp jatqan joqsyzdar emessizder – You are not learning
Ol oqyp jatqan joq / emes – He/She is not learningOlar oqyp jatqan joq / emes – They are not learning

oıla-p júr+gen jok/emes+ending – do not think

Men oılap júrgen joqпын / emespin – I am not thinkingBiz oılap júrgen joqпыз / emespiz – We are not thinking
Sen oılap júrgen joqsyń / emessiń – You are not thinkingSender oılap júrgen joqsyńdar emessizder – You are not thinking
Siz oılap júrgen joqsyz / emessiz – You are not thinkingSizder oılap júrgen joqsyzdar / emessizder – You are not thinking
Ol oılap júrgen jok / emes – He/She is not thinkingOlar oılap júrgen jok / emes – They are not thinking
  • by adding to the main verb, with which the function verb is combined, the negation affixes -pa/-pe, -ba/-be /, -ma/-me. After that, the affix takes the form –ı (and not -p): aıt + pa + ı jatyrdo not say, oqy + ma + ı otyrdo not read, ber + me + ı turdo not give, kes-pe-ı júrdon’t cut, jaz-ba-ı otyrdo not write.
Men kitapty oqymamyr otyrmyn. — I’m not reading a book right now. 
Biz ony kórmeı otyrmyz. — We don’t see him now. 
Sender ne, istemeı otyrsyńdar? — What aren’t you doing now?” 
Bala mektepte oqymaı jatyr. — The child is not currently in school.
Men onda oryndyq aparbaı jatyrmyn. — I’m not carrying a chair there right now. 
Olar uıyqtamaı jatyr. — They are not sleeping now.
Men qazir onymen sóılespeı turmyn.  — I’m not talking to her right now.
Olar maǵan qaramaı túr. — They are not looking at me now.
Sen bizge kelmeı tursyń. — Don’t come in our place right now. 
Men mektepte oqymamyr júrmin. — I’m not in school right now. 
Ol ýnıversıtette oqymaı júr. — She is not currently studying at the University. 
Men sen týraly oılamamyr júrmin. — I’m not thinking about you right now.

Interrogative form of the present continuous tense

In the present continuous tense, questions are using negative particles -ma/-me, -ba/-be or interrogative words.

Qazyr ǵalomtorda oqyp júrmasyń ba?Are you not studying online now?
Siz jınalysta sóılesip jatyrsyz ba?Are you speaking at a meeting now?
Balalardy qarap otyrmasyńdar ma?You’re not looking after the kids right now?”
Olar uıyqtap jatyrsyńdar ma?Are they sleeping now?
Sen mektepte oqyp júrsiń me?Are you in school now?”
Balalar nan ákelip júr me?Children are now the bread?
Biz ekara kórip otyrmyz ba?Do we see him now?
Biz onymen sóılesip turmyz ba?Are we talking to her now?
Biz úıdiń ishin únsiz jınastyryp júrmiz be?We are now cleaning the house in silence?
Sender emes istep otyrsyńdar?What are you doing now?
Ashanada kim bolyp jatyr?Who is in the kitchen now?
Olarmen qaı jerde serýendep jatyr?Where does he walk with them now?

This present tense expresses an obvious, continued action. The past continuous tense (naq ótken shaq)  is constructed in a similar way, but affixes of the past tense are added to auxiliary verbs.