19 May · softmaker · No Comments

Past transitional time (aýyspaly ótken shaq) of the Kazakh language

In the Kazakh language the past transitional tense of the verb (aýyspaly ótken shaq) in contrast to the past uncertain tense (kúmándi ótken shaq) is used when the action is repeated constantly, has a long-term character, and occurred for a long time for an indefinite time.

Examples of the past transitional tense

The transitional past tense of the verb (aýyspaly ótken shaq) is formed by attaching the suffixes -atyn, -etin, -ıtin to the base of the verb. Then one of the personal affixes -myn/-min, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -byz/-biz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder is added. The choice of an affix depends on:

  • hardness or softness of the last syllable of a verb
  • its last sound
  • person and number of the verb

The affix of the past tense atyn + solid personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men aıt-atyn-myn.I said.
Plural
Biz aıt-atyn-byz.We said.
2ndSingle
Sen aıt-atyn-syń.
Siz aıt-atynsiz.
You said.
You said.
Plural
Sender aıt-atyn-syńdar.
Sizder aıt-atyn-syzdar.
You said.
You said.
3rdSingle
Ol aıt-atyn.She/He said.
Plural
Olar aıt-atyn.They said.

The affix of the past tense etin + soft personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men ish-etin-min.I drank.
Plural
Biz ish-etin-biz.We drank.
2ndSingle
Sen ish-etin-sin.
Siz ish-etin-siz.
You drank.
You drank.
Plural
Sender ish-etin-sinder.
Sizder ish-etin-sizder.
You drank.
You drank
3rdSingle
Ol ish-etin.She/He drank.
Plural
Olar ish-etin.They drank.

The affix of the past tense ıtin + soft personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men serýende-ıtin-min.I walked.
Plural
Biz serýende-ıtin-biz.We walked.
2ndSingle
Sen serýende-ıtin-siń.
Siz serýende-ıtin-siz.
You walked.
You walked.
Plural
Sender serýende-ıtinsinder.
Sizder serýende-ıtin-sizder.
You walked.
You walked.
3rdSingle
Ol serýende-ıtin.He/She walked.
Plural
Olar serýende-ıtin.They walked.

Negation in the past transitional tense

Negative form of the past unobvious tense of the Kazakh language is formed by attaching -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe. First, affixes -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe are added to the base of the verb, then follows the verbal adverb affix -p and the personal affixes of the past tense verb -myn/-min, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -byz/-biz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder.

Negative affix -ma + the past tense affix atyn + solid personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men aıt-pa-ıtyn-myn.I didn’t say.
Plural
Biz aıt-pa-ıtyn-byz.We didn’t say.
2ndSingle
Sen aıt-pa-ıtyn-syń.
Siz aıt-pa-ıtyn-siz.
You didn’t say.
You didn’t say
.
Plural
Sender aıt-pa-ıtyn-syńdar.
Sizder aıt-pa-ıtyn-syzdar.
You didn’t say.
You didn’t say.
3rdSingle
Ol aıt-pa-ıtyn.She/He didn’t say.
Plural
Olar aıt-pa-ıtyn.They didn’t say.

Negative affix -me + the past tense affix ıtin + soft personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men sóıle-me-ıtin-min.I didn’t say.
Plural
Biz sóıle-me-ıtin-miz.We didn’t say.
2ndSingle
Sen sóıle-me-ıtin-siń.
Siz sóıle-me-ıtin-siz
.
You didn’t say.
You didn’t say.
Plural
Sender sóıle-me-ıtin-sinder.
Sizder sóıle-me-ıtin-sizder.
You didn’t say.
You didn’t say.
3rdSingle
Ol sóıle-me-ıtin.She/He didn’t say.
Plural
Olar sóıle-me-ıtin.They didn’t say.

Interrogative form of the past transitional tense

The interrogative form is formed using the interrogative particles -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe and question words.

Sen sabaqta bolatynsyń ba?Were you in the class?
Siz jınalysta sóıleıtinsiz be?Did you speak at the meeting?
Sizder tanysatynsyzdar ma?Have you read your lessons?
Olar sálemdesetin me?Did they say hello?
Sen keshe leksıada bolatynsyń ba?Did you attend the lecture yesterday?
Balalar nan ákeletin me?Did the children bring bread?
Siz jáne dosyńyz qashantanystatynsyzdar?When did you and your friend meet?
Ashanada kim bolatyn?Who was in the kitchen?
Seniń ápkeń turmysqa shyqatyn ma, joq pa?Is your sister married or not?
Sizdiń aǵańyz qashan úılenetin?When did your brother get married?
Olarmen qaı jerde serýendeıtin?Where did he walk with them?

Learn also how the pluperfect tense of the  Kazakh language is formed.

Category: Shaqtar (tenses)

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