11 May · softmaker · No Comments

Past uncertain tense (kúmándi ótken shaq) of the Kazakh language

In the Kazakh language, the past unreliable unobvious tense of the verb (kúmándi ótken shaq), in contrast to the simple past reliable tense, is used when the speaker is not sure of the reliability of information or this information is somewhat new to him. This time expresses an obvious, one-time action.

Examples of the past uncertain tense

The past uncertain tense of the verb (kúmándi ótken shaq) is formed by attaching the verb affixes -yp/-ip/-p. First, affixes -yp/-ip/-p are added to the base of the verb, then the personal affixes -pyn/-pin, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -ty/-ti, -pyz/-piz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder. The choice of affix depends on:

  • hardness or softness of the last syllable of a verb
  • its last sound
  • person and number of the verb

Ol bul jýrnal oky-p-you.  – He (probably) read this magazine.

Sen jumysty erte bitir-ip-siń. You finished your work early (it turns out).

The affix of the past tense -yp + solid personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men al-yp-pyn.I took it.
Plural
Biz al-yp-pyz.We took it.
2ndSingle
Sen al-yp-syń.
Siz al-yp-syz
You took it.
You took it.
Plural
Sender al-yp-syndar.
Sizder al-yp-syzdar.
You took it.
You took it.
3rdSingle
Ol al-yp-ty.She/He took it.
Plural
Olar al-yp-ty.Olar aldyq.

The affix of the past tense -ip + soft personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men kór-ip-pin.I saw it.
Plural
Biz kór-ip-piz.We saw it.
2ndSingle
Sen kór-ip-siń.
Siz kór-ip-siz.
You saw it.
You saw it.
Plural
Sender kór-ip-sinder.
Sizder kór-ip-sizder.
You saw it.
You saw it.
3rdSingle
Ol kór-ip-ti.She/He saw it.
Plural
Olar kór-ip-ti.They saw it.

The affix of the past tense -p + soft personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men iste-p-pin.I worked.
Plural
Biz iste-p-piz.We worked.
2ndSingle
Sen iste-p-siń.
Siz iste-p-siz.
You worked.
You worked.
Plural
Sender iste-p-sinder.
Sizder iste-p-sizder.
You worked.
You worked.
3rdSingle
Ol iste-p-ti.She/He worked.
Plural
Olar iste-p-ti.They worked.

Negation in the past unobvious tense

Negative form of the past unobvious tense of the Kazakh language is formed by attachingma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe. First, affixes -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe are added to the base of the verb, then follows the verbal adverb affix -p and the personal affixes of the past tense verb -pyn/-pin, -syń/-siń, -syz/-siz, -ty/-ti, -pyz/-piz, -syńdar/-sińder, -syzdar/-sizder.

Negative affix -ma + the past tense affix -p + solid personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men al-ma-p-pyn.I didn’t take it.
Plural
Biz al-ma-p-pyz.We didn’t take it.
2ndSingle
Sen al-ma-p-syń.
Siz al-ma-p-syn
You didn’t take it.
You didn’t take it.
Plural
Sender al-ma-p-syńdar.
Sizder al-ma-p-syzdar.
You didn’t take it.
You didn’t take it.
3rdSingle
Ol al-ma-p-ty.She/He didn’t take it.
Plural
Olar al-ma-p-ty.They didn’t take it.

Negative affix -me + the past tense affix -p + soft personal affixes:

PersonNumber
1stSingle
Men kór-me-s-pin.I didn’t see it.
Plural
Biz kór-me-p-piz.We didn’t see it.
2ndSingle
Sen kór-me-p-siń.
Siz kór-me-s-siz.
You didn’t see it.
You didn’t see it.
Plural
Sender kór-me-p-sinder.
Sizder kór-me-s-sizder.
You didn’t see it.
You didn’t see it.
3rdSingle
Ol kór-me-p-ti.She/He didn’t see it.
Plural
Olar kór-me-p-ti.They didn’t see it.

Interrogative form of the uncertain past tense

The interrogative form is formed using the interrogative particles -ma/-me, -ba/-be, -pa/-pe and question words.

Sen sabaqta bolypsyń ba?Were you in the class?
Siz jınalysta sóılepsiz be?Did you speak at the meeting?
Sender sabaq oqypsyndar ma?Have you read your lessons?
Sizder tanysypsyzdar ma?Have you met her?
Olar sálemdesipti me?Did they say hello?
Sen keshe leksıada bolypsyń ba?Did you attend the lecture yesterday?
Balalar nan ákelipti me?Did the children bring bread?
Siz jáne dosyńyz qashantanystypsyzdar?When did you and your friend meet?
Ashanada kim bolypty?Who was in the kitchen?
Seniń ápkeń turmysqa shyqpyty ma, joq pa?Is your sister married or not?
Sizdiń aǵańyz qashan úılenipti?When did your brother get married?
Ótken jyl qaı jyl bolypty?What year was last year?

Also find out how the pluperfect tense of the Kazakh language is formed.

Category: Shaqtar (tenses)

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