9 Apr · softmaker · No Comments

Cardinal numeral (eseptik san esim) of the Kazakh language

Good day, dear blog readers of our website SoftMaker.kz! Cardinal numeral adjective (eseptik san esim) of the Kazakh language answers questions qansha? neshe? (how much?).

The contents

Examples of the cardinal numerals

The cardinal numerals are:

  • Dara (simple) and consist of one word:
One – birNine – toǵyzEighty – seksen
Two – ekiTen – onNinety – toqsan
Three – úshTwenty – jıyrmaHundred – júz
Four – tórtThirty – otyzThousand – myń
Five – besForty – qyryqMillion – mıllıon
Six – altyFifty – elýBillion – mıllıard
Seven – jetiSixty – alpysTrillion – trıllıon
Eight – segizSeventy – jetpisQuadrillion – kvadrıllıon
  • Kúrdeli (composite) and consist of two or more words:
Eleven – on birThree hundred and two – úsh júz eki
Nineteen – on toǵyzFour hundred ten – tórt júz on
One hundred and one – júz birFive hundred sixty-six – bes júz alpys alty
One hundred and nine – júz toǵyzSix hundred eight – alty júz segiz
One thousand nine hundred and eighty-sixMyń toǵyz júz seksen alty
Two million five hundred thirty-four thousand six hundred eighty-sevenEki mıllıon bes júz otyz tórt myń alty júz seksen jeti

Here for large numbers used international names: millionbilliontrillion and so on.

Rules for the use of the compound cardinal numerals

Complex (compound — kúrdeli) cardinal numerals are composed of combinations of numbers, which are listed in the first table. If we talk about the numbers from eleven to nineteen, a larger number is used at the beginning of an expression, then the smaller one.

For example, the number on is more than the number bir, so the number on we use in the beginning of the expression: first we write the number on, then join the number bir.

  • on eki (twelve) — the number on is greater than the number eki
  • ol alty (sixteen) — the number on is greater than the number alty

Starting with the number twenty, the word order in complex numerals is the same as in English:

  • otyz bes (thirty-five) — the number otyz is greater than the number bes
  • alpys alty (sixty-six) — the number alpys is greater than the number alty

In the Kazakh language, before the names of numbers: one hundred, one thousand, one million, and so on, the names of smaller numbers can be attached:

  • (bir) júz elý toǵyz — one hundred and fifty-nine
  • (bir) myń toǵyz júz seksen bes — one thousand nine hundred eighty-five
  • toǵyz mıllıon on myń — nine million ten thousand

Cardinal numerals in the function of definition

When using cardinal numerals as a definition or words denoting an indefinite number, the noun does not take the plural ending:

  • bes stýdent (five students) — bes stýdent + ter
  • kóp kisi (five people) — kop kisi + ler
  • jıyrma bes qoı (twenty-five sheep) — jıyrma bes qoı + lar

The predicate of similar constructions is also written without the plural ending:

  • jıyrma bes qoı jaıylyp júr (twenty-five sheep are grazing) — jıyrma bes qoı jaıylyp júr + ler

So, in the Kazakh language, numerals in the function of definition before nouns do not change either in a number or in a case. And there is no gender in the Kazakh language. Therefore, the same numeral, depending on the meaning of the sentence, can be translated into English in the masculine or feminine gender.

The use of the cardinal numerals in sentences

  • Bizdiń kýrsta jıyrma bes stýdent bar. There are twenty-five students in our course.
  • Instıtýtta eki myń bes júz alpys bes stýdent oqıdy. There are two thousand five hundred and sixty-five students in the institute.
  • Biz jazda alpys eki kún sovhozda jumys istegenbiz. In the summer, we worked on the farm for sixty-two days.
  • Ár stýdent qyryq myń úsh júz jıyrma tórt tengeden aqsha aldy. Each student received forty thousand three hundred and twenty-four tenge.

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